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Cardiac ischemia refers to decreased or restricted flow of oxygenated blood to heart muscle due to narrowing of coronary arteries. Such narrowing is frequently caused by plaque build-up (atherosclerosis), but may also be due to other causes such as vasospasm or dissection of the artery. Cardiac ischemia may cause chest pain or discomfort (termed angina) often aggravated by exertion and, in some cases, pain in the arms, shoulder, back, neck, or jaw, diaphoresis, nausea, or breathlessness.

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