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Cardiovascular Disease Projections in the United States Based on the 2020 Census EstimatesFree Access

Original Investigation

J Am Coll Cardiol, 80 (6) 565–578

Central Illustration



Understanding trends in cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV disease according to age, sex, race, and ethnicity is important for policy planning and public health interventions.


The goal of this study was to project the number of people with CV risk factors and disease and further explore sex, race, and ethnical disparities.


The prevalence of CV risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity) and CV disease (ischemic heart disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke) according to age, sex, race, and ethnicity was estimated by using logistic regression models based on 2013-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and further combining them with 2020 U.S. Census projection counts for years 2025-2060.


By the year 2060, compared with the year 2025, the number of people with diabetes mellitus will increase by 39.3% (39.2 million [M] to 54.6M), hypertension by 27.2% (127.8M to 162.5M), dyslipidemia by 27.5% (98.6M to 125.7M), and obesity by 18.3% (106.3M to 125.7M). Concurrently, projected prevalence will similarly increase compared with 2025 for ischemic heart disease by 31.1% (21.9M to 28.7M), heart failure by 33.0% (9.7M to 12.9M), myocardial infarction by 30.1% (12.3M to 16.0M), and stroke by 34.3% (10.8M to 14.5M). Among White individuals, the prevalence of CV risk factors and disease is projected to decrease, whereas significant increases are projected in racial and ethnic minorities.


Large future increases in CV risk factors and CV disease prevalence are projected, disproportionately affecting racial and ethnic minorities. Future health policies and public health efforts should take these results into account to provide quality, affordable, and accessible health care.