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Abstract

Objectives

This study sought to investigate the factors associated with repeat infection following lead extraction procedures.

Background

Although lead extraction is an essential therapy for patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection, repeat infection still occurs in some patients.

Methods

The authors reviewed data for consecutive patients who underwent extraction of infected CIEDs from August 2003 to May 2019. Repeat infection was defined as infective endocarditis, sepsis with no alternative focus, or pocket infection after extraction of infected CIEDs.

Results

Extraction of infected CIEDs was performed in 496 patients. The most commonly implicated pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 188). In 449 patients (90.5%), all leads were completely extracted using only transvenous techniques. Thirty-three patients (6.7%) underwent surgical lead extraction, and 14 (2.8%) had retained leads or lead components. After a median follow-up of 352 [40 to 1,255] days after CIED extraction, 144 patients (29.0%) died. Repeat infection occurred in 47 patients (9.5%) with the median time from the extraction to repeat infection of 103 [45 to 214] days. In multivariable analysis, presence of a left ventricular assist device, younger age at extraction, and S. aureus infection were independent predictors of repeat infection. Additionally, chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, presence of septic emboli, S. aureus infection, and occurrence of major complications were independent predictors of increased mortality.

Conclusions

Patients with S. aureus infection have a high risk of repeat infection and poor prognosis after CIED extraction. Repeat infection is also predicted by younger age and the presence of a left ventricular assist device, whereas mortality was predicted by congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and septic emboli.

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